The education system is divided into 4 levels– Primary (from grades 1 to 5), Secondary (from grades 6 to 10), Higher Secondary (from grades 11 to 12) and tertiary. Alongside national educating system, English medium education is also provided by some private enterprises. They offer ‘A’ level and ‘O’ level courses. There is also Madrasa system which emphasizes on Arabic medium Islam-based education. This system is supervised by the lone Madrasa Board of the country.
In 1998 there were about 52,000 primary schools 11000 secondary institutions. The five years of lower secondary education concludes with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of Higher Secondary or intermediate training, which culminate in a Higher Secondary School (HSC) examination. Five education boards lead by the Ministry of Education deal with education up to HSC level.
Primary and secondary level management
The primary level of education is managed by the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) while the secondary level of education is controlled by the eight General Education boards:
- Barisal Education Board for Barisal Division
- Chittagong Education Board for Chittagong Division
- Comilla Education Board for Comilla Division
- Dhaka Education Board for Dhaka Division and Mymensingh Division
- Dinajpur Education Board for Rangpur Division
- Jessore Education Board for Khulna Division
- Rajshahi Education Board for Rajshahi Division
- Sylhet Education Board for Sylhet Division
The boards’ headquarters are located in Barishal, Comilla Chittagong, Dhaka, Dinajpur Jessore, Rajshahi and Sylhet . In addition, the Madrasah Education Board covers religious education in government-registered Madrasahs, and the Technical Education Board controls technical and vocational training in the secondary level.
Eight region-based Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) are responsible for conducting the four public examinations:
- Primary School Certificate (PSC) (5th grade)
- Junior School Certificate (JSC) (8th grade)
- Secondary School Certificate (SSC) (10th grade)
- Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) (12th grade)
At the school level, in the case of non-government secondary schools, School Management Committees (SMC), and at the intermediate college level, in the case of non-government colleges, Governing Bodies (GB), formed as per government directives, are responsible for mobilising resources, approving budgets, controlling expenditures, and appointing and disciplining staff. While teachers of non-government secondary schools are recruited by concerned SMCs observing relevant government rules, teachers of government secondary schools are recruited centrally by the DSHE through a competitive examination.
In government secondary schools, there is not an SMC. The headmaster is solely responsible for running the school and is supervised by the deputy director of the respective zone. Parent Teachers Associations (PTAs), however, exist to ensure a better teaching and learning environment.
Bangladesh has 35 public universities instructing the bulk of higher studies students. They that are funded by the government and managed as self-governed government institutions.
Private universities in Bangladesh came into being after institution of the Private University Act of 1992. As of 2008, over 55 of them had started. These universities follow an open credit system.
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- Khan, Siddiqur Rahman (2005-01-18). “11 pvt univs offer 50 courses without UGC approval”. New Age. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
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- Staff Reporter (2004-10-23). “UCG report on private varsities to be made public”. The Independent. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
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- University Grants Commission of Bangladesh
- UNESCO: List of Bangladesh universities
- University Act of 1857 on Banglapedia
- University Act of 1904 on Banglapedia